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In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE 0. The increase in risk was demonstrated in year one and persisted [see Clinical Studies Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE 0.

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of CHD events reported in women receiving daily CE 0. Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events CE 0.


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During an average follow-up of 4. Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT 26 versus 13 per 10, women-years and PE 18 versus 8 per 10, women-years were also demonstrated. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogens should be discontinued immediately. If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in nonusers, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of to fold for 5 to 10 years or more, and this risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.

Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose.

Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the Women's Health Initiative WHI substudy of daily CE 0. After a mean follow-up of 5. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women.

The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger and diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE 0. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups [see Clinical Studies The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the Women's Health Initiative WHI substudy of daily CE 0.

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7. Consistent with the WHI clinical trials, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping. Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy.

However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration. The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation.

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All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5. However, the duration of exposure associated with increased risk is not consistent across all epidemiologic studies, and some report no association. In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study, after an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia.

The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10, women-years 8 [see Use in Specific Populations 8. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1. The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10, women-years 8 [see Use in Specific Populations 8. When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.

Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women 8 [see Use in Specific Populations 8. A 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported. Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases.

If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level.

Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in women receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued.

Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer. In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens.

In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogen therapy on blood pressure was not seen. In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs. Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in women with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.

Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin TBG levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T 4 and T 3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy.

These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range. Estrogens plus progestins may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogens are prescribed. Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered. Exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema, particularly in women with hereditary angioedema.

Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions. Serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

Increased thyroid-binding globulin TBG leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine PBI , T 4 levels by column or by radioimmunoassay , or T 3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T 3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG.

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Free T 4 and free T 3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin CBG , sex hormone binding globulin SHBG , leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:.

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trial of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Tenderness, enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea, fibrocystic breast changes, breast cancer. Deep and superficial venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, superficial thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, stroke, increase in blood pressure. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, cholestatic jaundice, increased incidence of gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, changes in appetite, ischemic colitis.

Chloasma or melasma that may persist when drug is discontinued, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, loss of scalp hair, hirsutism, pruritus, urticaria, rash, acne. Retinal vascular thrombosis, intolerance of contact lenses. Headache, migraine, dizziness, mental depression, exacerbation of chorea, mood disturbances, anxiety, irritability, exacerbation of epilepsy, dementia, growth potentiation of benign meningioma.

Additional postmarketing adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving other forms of hormone therapy. Data from a single-dose drug-drug interaction study involving conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate indicate that the pharmacokinetic disposition of both drugs is not altered when the drugs are coadministered. Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice, may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.

There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy. Estrogen administration to nursing mothers has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk.

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Detectable amounts of estrogen and progestin have been identified in the breast milk of mothers receiving these drugs. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Clinical Studies For example, when you search for a film, we use your search information and location to show the most relevant cinemas near you.

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Beth Isaac, PharmD. A: For women who still have a uterus, who have not had a hysterectomy, taking Premarin alone, without a progestin, increases the risk of endometrial cancer, which is cancer of the lining of the uterus. Women, who still have a uterus, should take Premarin in combination with a progestin. You can take the progestins separately while using the cream.

Estrogen drugs, such as Premarin, used with or without a progestin may increase the risk of breast cancer. Proper screening and monitoring, as determined by your healthcare provider, such as yearly mammograms and monthly self breast exams, is recommended. Some studies have shown an increase in ovarian cancer while others have not. You should discuss this with your healthcare provider. A: The benefit of taking Premarin is that it is supplying your body with the hormone estrogen, which was likely greatly lowered after your hysterectomy.

Estrogen supplementation has been shown to help with menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, burning, irritation and prevention of osteoporosis. However, hormone replacement can also have risks associated with it. According to the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA , risks that are associated with hormone replacement include increase risk of blood clots, strokes, heart attacks, gall bladder disease and breast cancer. A: Your question regards Premarin conjugated estrogens and safety.

According to Lexi-Comp, Premarin has a warning that states that estrogens should be used for the shortest duration possible at the lowest effective dosage as possible. Women are encouraged to weigh the risks associated with hormone treatment to the benefits of treatment. If you have not received information about the risks associated with hormone treatment, please ask your pharmacist for this information. Please talk with your health care provider regarding your concerns.

Jen Marsico RPh. There are a number of websites that turned up in my search which seem to be women-oriented and which you may find helpful in your effort. A: According to the Food and Drug Administraiton, estrogens and progestins should be used at the lowest doses for the shortest duration to reach treatment goals. Women should talk to their health care provider regularly about whether treatment is still needed.

There are many long-term side effects that have been associated with hormone therapy. Among those are cancer breast, ovarian , heart attack, stroke, and blood clots. It is best to consult with your physician to see if you can decrease the dose or possibly stop taking the medication. He or she will know whether the risks outweigh the benefits for your particular situation. A: Premarin conjugated estrogens is a mixture of female hormones that works by replacing natural estrogens that women no longer produce. Estrogen is indicated for treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and burning.

Estroven is a dietary supplement that contains phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are found naturally plants including soybeans, whole grain cereals, seeds, and nuts. Phytoestrogens have a structure similar to that of estrogen produced in the body and help support hormonal balance. Black cohosh is a also a dietary supplement that is a rich herbal source of natural phytoestrogens that has been clinically shown to reduce hot flashes. Soy is also found in many over-the-counter products used to treat menopause. There are actually numerous products available over-the-counter that are marketed to treat the symptoms of menopause.

However, it is best to consult with your doctor before taking any of them. Because dietary supplements have not been thoroughly studied in the clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs are not well known. Also because herbs and supplements are not strictly regulated in the U. Food and Drug Administration, these products are not required to be tested for effectiveness, purity, and safety. In general, dietary supplements should only be taken under the supervision of your health care provider.

For more specific information, consult with your pharmacist about the potential for drug interactions based on your specific condition and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your medications and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals and herbals, as well as the foods you eat.

Also keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care provider and your pharmacist. If possible, use one pharmacy for all your prescription medications and over-the-counter products. This allows your pharmacist to keep a complete record of all your prescription drugs and to advise you about drug interactions and side effects. Kimberly Hotz, PharmD. A: Estrogen is a female sex hormone that is produced by the ovaries and is necessary for many processes in the body. Premarin conjugated estrogens is a mixture of estrogen hormones used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, and vaginal dryness, burning, and irritation.

It can also be used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to replace estrogen in women with ovarian failure or other conditions that cause a lack of natural estrogen in the body. Breast pain, tenderness, or swelling can be a common side effect of Premarin.

A search of the prescribing information for Premarin did not list burning in the breast as a specific side effect. Other common side effects include mild nausea, vomiting, bloating, stomach cramps, darkening of facial skin, increased hair growth, loss of scalp hair, changes in weight or appetite, decreased sex drive, headache, nervousness, dizziness, and tiredness. This is not a complete list of side effects that can occur with Premarin.

If you are concerned about a particular side effect or symptom you are experiencing, please consult your doctor. Your doctor or health care provider is best able to properly evaluate your medical condition and make recommendations based on your specific circumstances. You may also get more information by using the Everyday Health Symptom Checker. Sarah Lewis, PharmD. A: Premarin carries a warning that estrogens should be used for the shortest duration possible, at the lowest effective dosage possible.

Women are encouraged to weigh the risks associated with hormone treatment against the benefits of the treatment. Also talk with your health care provider about your concerns regarding Premarin. Jen Marsico, RPh. Premarin Cream treats vaginal dryness and painful intercourse caused by vaginal changes. Premarin Cream can be absorbed into the bloodstream, but side effects may not be as severe as taking oral Premarin. Common side effects of Premarin Cream are breast tenderness, vaginal burning, itching or irritation, and weight changes.

Another side effect of Premarin Cream listed was mild hair loss. This is not a complete list of the side effects associated with Premarin Cream. For more specific information, consult with your doctor or pharmacist for guidance based on your health status and current medications, particularly before taking any action. When your doctor prescribes a new medication, be sure to discuss all your prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals, and herbals, as well as the foods you eat.

Always keep a current list of the drugs and supplements you take and review it with your health care providers and your pharmacist. Tell your health care provider about any negative side effects from prescription drugs. You can also report them to the U. Food and Drug Administration by visiting www. Kimberly Hotz,PharmD. A: Premarin conjugated estrogens tablets, USP is used after menopause to reduce moderate to severe hot flashes; to treat moderate to severe dryness, itching, and burning, in and around the vagina; and to help reduce your chances of getting osteoporosis thin weak bones.

The most commonly reported side effects with Premarin include vaginitis due to yeast or other causes, vaginal bleeding, painful menstruation, and leg cramps. Shereen A. Gharbia, PharmD. A: Premarin conjugated estrogens is in a drug class called hormones. Premarin is used to treat symptoms of menopause, like hot flashes and dryness, and burning and irritation of the vaginal area.

Premarin is also used to prevent osteoporosis in women who have gone through menopause. In addition, Premarin is used to replace estrogen in women whose ovaries have failed or in certain other conditions that cause a lack of natural estrogen in the body. Sometimes, Premarin is used in combination with other therapies to treat certain cancers in women and men.

Premarin works by replacing estrogen that is normally made by the body. Estrogen is a female sex hormone responsible for many processes in the body. According to Premarin? A person who takes Premarin should talk to their health care provider on a regular basis e.

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Derek Dore, PharmD. A: Premarin estrogen is a female hormone, used to ease the symptoms of menopause. It can be taken while symptoms are present or until menopause is complete. The amount of time depends on the individual, but it usually lasts an average of 12 months from the last period. It should not be used forever, as there are risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

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Side effects from the medication may include breast pain or tenderness, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, flu or cold symptoms, back pain, vaginal discharge, painful or difficult urination, dizziness, nervousness, depression, irritability, insomnia, hair loss, unwanted hair growth, changes in sexual desire, swelling, redness, burning, itching, or irritation of the vagina, leg cramps, difficulty wearing contact lenses, spotty darkening of the skin on the face, and sudden feelings of heat or sweating.

This is not a complete list of the side effects associated with Premarin estrogen. Patti Brown, PharmD. A: Although the risk of a serious adverse effect is much less likely for most women using low doses of estrogens vaginally compared to orally, adverse effects are possible. Serious adverse effects of estrogen therapy include: breast cancer, cancer of uterus, stroke, heart attack, blood clots, dementia, and gallbladder disease. If you are predisposed to any of the above conditions because of family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, tobacco use, or obesity, you are at a higher risk for complications.